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电动汽车的无线充电技术外文翻译及原文

    作者:新论文网    [ 2013-10-26 14:45:18 ]

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  淮 阴 工 学 院
毕业设计(论文)外文资料翻译

系  (院): 交通工程学院
专    业: 车辆工程
姓    名: 
学    号: 
外文出处: 盖世汽车网
(用外文写) 
附    件: 1.外文资料翻译译文;2.外文原文。

       
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    注:请将该封面与附件装订成册。附件1:外文资料翻译译文
电动汽车的无线充电技术
无线充电技术概念
   无线充电技术,源于无线电力输送技术,利用磁共振在充电器与设备之间的空气中传输电荷,线圈和电容器则在充电器与设备之间形成共振,实现电能高效传输的技术。
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

无线充电技术概要
   麻省理工学院的研究团队在2007年6月7日美国《科学》杂志的网站上发表了他们的研究成果。研究小组把共振运用到电磁波的传输上而成功“抓住”了电磁波。他们利用铜制线圈作为电磁共振器,一团线圈附在传送电力方,另一团在接受电力方。当传送方送出某特定频率的电磁波后,经过电磁场扩散到接受方,电力就实现了无线传导。这项被他们称为“无线电力”的技术经过多次试验,已经能成功为一个两米外的60瓦灯泡供电。目前这项技术的最远输电距离还只能达到2.7米,但研究者相信,电源已经可以在这范围内为电池充电。而且只需要安装一个电源,就可以为整个屋里的电器供电。富士通表示这一系统可以在未来得到广泛应用,例如针对电动汽车的充电区以及针对电脑芯片的电量传输。采用这项技术研制的充电系统所需要的充电时间只有当前的一百五十分之一。
无线充电技术研发
利用共振原理“抓住”电磁波

 

 

 


   麻省理工学院的科研组不是第一个提出无线能量转换的组织。科学家早在19世纪就发现了电磁转换现象,从理论上说,电力可转化为通过无形的介质传播的电磁波,实现电力的无线输送。但是电磁波向四面八方辐射,能量大量散失,因此“无线输电”的研究始终进展不大。19世纪的物理学家  无线充电技术和工程师尼古拉·特斯拉进行了远程无线能量转换系统实验,但是当他的财力用尽后,这项最有野心的尝试(29米高的瓦登克莱弗塔)宣告失败。其他尝试包括激光等定向能量转换机制。然而,它们与麻省理工学院的工作不同,这些都需要连续的可视线路,这对住宅周围的电力设施不好。
   现在,研究组成员,助理教授马林·索亚克教授和他的科研组正在改进这个设备。“这是一项还未得到发展的系统,它证明能量转换行得通。但是目前你不会愿意利用它给你的膝上型电脑供电。我们的目标是缩小这个设备的体积、扩大感应器间的距离和提高电力转换功效。”他与同事安德烈·库尔斯、阿里特迪兹·卡拉里斯、罗伯特·莫埃特、约翰·加侬珀洛斯和彼得·索利科合作,进行了这项研究。
利用共振原理实现无线电力传输
   这个系统利用了共振(当一个物体与另一个物体的频率一样时,就会产生震动)原理。当两个物体的振动频率相同时,它们传递能量的强度不会受到周围事物的影响。索亚克教授解释说:“如果房间内放了许多相同的杯子,你向瓶中倒入不同度数的葡萄酒,这时这些杯子就会产生不同的振幅。”例如,如果用勺子敲击,每个杯子都会发出不同的声音。“如果我进入房间,开始用非常高的声音歌唱,当我的声音于其中一个杯子的频率相同时,它就有可能爆炸。”
   据英国广播公司2007年6月19日报道,这个无线电力传输不像现在的电力设备,它可以避免被鼠巢破坏,减少很多麻烦,因为它并不需要电线连接。研究人员在《科学》杂志上对这种设备作了详细介绍。在实验测试中,这个设备让距离它2米(7英尺)的一盏80瓦电灯泡发出光亮。该装置被称作WiTricity,研究人员根据物理学原理研发了它,这种设备还适合为膝上型电脑等装置提供电源。WiTricity利用的是低频电磁波共振,而不是利用声学共振。在实验中,两个感应器都以10兆赫的频率震动,产生共振,让能量在两者之间传递。伦敦帝国学院的约翰·本德莱教授解释说:“随着每一次共振,感应器中会有更多的电压产生。”经过产生多次共振,感应器表面就会集聚足够的能量,让灯泡发出光亮。这个能量的集聚也是为什么一位歌手用与杯子相同频率的声音歌唱时,杯子不会立刻破裂的原因。本德莱教授说:“酒杯不断集聚能量,直到能将自己打碎。”
   据本德莱教授说,利用波长为30米(100英尺)的低频电磁波具有安全优势。他说:“通常用千兆赫兹(更短的波长)的手机时,会有电场和磁场辐射同时产生。”这个过程就是我们所知的“远声场”的一个典型特征,这种场是从振幅超过一个波长的设备里产生的,如果振幅小于一个波长,产生的将主要是磁场。约翰说:“身体对电场的反应很强烈,这也是为什么你能利用 微波炉烹制鸡肉的原因。但是磁场不会对人体产生影响。根据身体对能量的吸收,它对磁场的反应几乎为零。”因此,这项设备不能给人类带来任何明显的健康风险。
无线能量转换传输装置工作原理

   利用物理学的“共振”原理——两个振动频率相同的物体能高效传输能量。
   1.输电线中的电能传入用铜制造的天线中。
   2.天线以10兆赫的波长振动,产生电磁波。
   3.天线发出的能量传播到2米(6.5英尺)外。
   4.同样以10兆赫的频率震动的膝上型电脑接收到电流,能量充入设备中。
   5.没有转换成膝上型电脑的能量不会被天线重新吸收。不能产生10兆赫共振的人和其他物体不会对它产生干扰。
设计方案
   在我们的日常生活中,经常会遇到手机、电脑等电量不足,急需冲电的情况,但是我们不可能随时携带充电器,导致手机充电很麻烦。现在有了无线充电技术就可以在很大的程度上减少这样的麻烦。尤其可以大大方便Iphone、Ipad等电池无法取出充电的电子产品。
   我的方案主要是针对白领阶层的办公用品,家用办公用品。理念是通过人们最常接触的桌子来解决这个问题,随时随地的对电子设配充电。
   保持办公桌的外观不变,在其表层添加一层无线充电的表层,这样一个终端就设计好了。然后在电子产品的背后添加一个无线充电接收设备,从而实现无线充电。当你在工作办公的时候,将手机放在桌子上的同时就可以为手机充电,时时刻刻保持电量充足,从而摆脱充电器的烦恼。
   这个设计主要是针对整个桌面的充电,无论你的数码设备放在那个位置,你都可以通过无线充电技术来为你的设备充电。桌子采用木质桌子的原型,主要在桌面做处理。将800mm×1000mm的无线充电发射器平铺在桌面上,铺满整个桌面,每个发射器之间连接在一起,形成一个整体。在桌子后面开一个小洞,将插头闲穿过,贴着桌子的轮廓下去。在桌子的表面覆盖一层塑胶膜,完全的覆盖桌子表面,将发射器等覆盖在其中,形成一个完整的桌面。
   电动汽车拥有者觉得最繁琐的事情可能就是每次为车辆充电都需要用一根电线绳连接插座与车辆。没有人喜欢每晚都做这样一件重复无聊的事情。
   近日,德尔福、英菲尼迪、日产、高通公司、劳斯莱斯和无线电力公司(WiTricity)都着手研究一种电动车无线充电技术,即不需要额外的连接设备例如电线,将充电设备安置在停车场的停车位上,驾驶者只需将车辆停放在相应位置就可离开。
   目前有一种利用电磁感应技术的充电方式可以达到无线充电的目的。在路面或停车场基站处安装一个具有可变电流的电磁线圈作为充电时的发射器,汽车下方具有一个作为接收器的电磁线圈,当汽车行驶到相应位置时,发射器与接收器通过无线感应发生共振从而产生电流,电流经过转换进入汽车电池,从而将电池充满。
   电磁感应技术虽然能够实现无线充电的设想,但是这项技术并不是完美的。由于安装在路面上的电磁发射器会产生杂波可能会加热周围的金属物体(通过欧姆加热方式)。这也是目前这项技术受到公众质疑的地方。
   这项技术采用无触点功率转换法,依靠磁动态耦合或MDC方式(两个相距4-6英寸的永磁体之间产生感应磁场)实现。在路面与车底部之间的系统发射端有一块磁铁,而位于车底部的接收端也具有一块磁铁。当一个小型电动马达转动下方的磁铁时,上方的磁铁受到电磁感应的影响随之旋转,从而产生感应电动势,即电能。
   研究人员解释道:“这种方式达到了与机械耦合同样的效果,但是它不需要直接接触,这样就起到了节能的效果。”
   从生产制造角度来说,两块磁铁能够分别集成到电动机与发电机之中,形成一个结构紧凑且可靠的电量转换系统。此外,可以使用相对便宜的铁酸盐磁铁代替成本较高的采用稀土元素材料制造的磁铁。
   测试结果表明,采用无线充电方法后,充电效率相比采用电缆充电要高出90%,并且设备与车辆之间不需要精确对准,因为磁场的效用范围比较大。
   现在面临一个技术问题就是在拥挤和天气恶劣的情况下是否还能做到准确的充电。一些专家质疑这项技术的实用性。橡树岭国家实验室专家John M. Miller表示:“这项技术无非就是将电能转化为机械能,再从机械能转化为电能,并且每一步能量转化都将伴随着能量损失。”
   对此,研究人员表示今后将会把磁铁设计的更轻量化,并利用独特设计实现更高效的能量传输。
   
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

附件2:外文原文
    Wireless charging technology for electric vehicles
Wireless charging technology concept
   Wireless charging technology, from wireless power transmission technology, the use of magnetic resonance in air transport between the charger and the device charge coil and a capacitor is formed between the charger and the device resonance energy efficient transmission technology.
    
    
    
    
    
    
Summary of wireless charging technology
    MIT research team published their findings in the U.S. "Science" magazine's Web site on June 7, 2007. Research group resonance applied to the transmission of electromagnetic waves and successful "seize" the electromagnetic waves. They use a copper coil as electromagnetic resonance, a mass of coils attached to the transmission of electric power to another group in power square. After the electromagnetic field when the sender sends a specific frequency of electromagnetic waves spread to the Recipient power wireless conduction. After several tests, this is referred to as "wireless power" technology has been able to successfully supply of two meters outside a 60-watt light bulb. Furthest transmission distance of this technology can only be up to 2.7 meters, but the researchers believe, the power supply has been in this range for battery charging. And only need to install a power supply, you can think that the electrical power supply of the entire house. Fujitsu said that this system can be widely used in the future, for example for electric vehicle charging area, and the transmission of electricity for computer chips. Charging system using the technology developed by the required charging time is only the 1/150.
Wireless charging technology R & D
Use of the theory of resonance "grab" electromagnetic waves

 

 

 

    MIT research group is not the first one to raise the the wireless energy conversion organization. Scientists early in the 19th century discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetic conversion theory, electricity can be transformed into an electromagnetic wave propagating through the invisible medium power wireless transmission. But electromagnetic waves radiated in all directions, the large amount of energy dissipated, "wireless transmission" is not always progress. 19th century physicist wireless charging technology and engineer Nikola Tesla the remote wireless energy conversion system experiment, but when exhausted his financial resources, the most ambitious attempts (29-meter-high Wadden Klein Furtado) failed. Other attempts include laser and directed energy conversion mechanism. However, they work with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, these require continuous visual line this bad power facilities around the residence.
     Now, members of the study group, Assistant Professor Professor Marin Suoya Ke, and his research group is to improve the equipment. "This is a system has not yet been developed, it is proved that the energy conversion feasible, but for now you will not be willing to use it to your laptop power supply. Our goal is to reduce the volume of the device, expand the induction the distance between the device and improve power conversion efficacy. "cooperation with colleagues Andre Cools, Alite Valdez · Kara Reese, Robert Mo Aite John Gagnon Poluo Si and Peter Suo Like this study.
Principle of resonance wireless power transmission
    This system utilizes resonance (vibration) principle occurs when the frequency of one object to another object. When the frequency of vibration of the two objects is the same, their strength is not affected by the influence of the things around the energy transfer. Suo Yake Professor explains: "If you put a lot of the same cup in the room, the bottle of wine poured into different degrees, when these cups will produce different amplitude." For example, if struck with a spoon every The cups will make different sounds. "If I enter the room, start with a very high voice singing, my voice in one cup of the same frequency, it is possible explosion.
    According to the British Broadcasting Corporation reported on June 19, 2007, unlike this wireless power transmission power equipment, it can avoid the rats nest destruction, to reduce a lot of trouble, because it does not require a wire connection. The researchers made a detailed description of this device in the "Science" magazine. In experimental tests, this device allows a distance of 2 meters (7 feet), a 80-watt light bulb emits light. The device is called WiTricity, researchers developed according to the principles of physics, this device is also suitable for laptops and other devices to provide power. WiTricity use of low-frequency electromagnetic resonance, rather than the use of acoustic resonance. In the experiment, two sensors are a vibration frequency of 10 MHz resonance, to allow energy to pass between the two. Imperial College London Professor John Ben Dresser explained: "With every resonance, the sensor will be more voltage generator." After generate multiple resonance sensor surface will gather enough energy, so that the bulb emits light. The gathering of this energy is why a singer with a voice singing with the same frequency in the cup, the cup is not immediately broken. Professor Ben Dresser said: "glasses constantly gather energy until able to own shattered."
   This Dresser said Professor wavelength of 30 meters (100 feet) of low-frequency electromagnetic waves have security advantages. He said: "usually gigahertz (shorter wavelength) phone, there will be both electric and magnetic radiation to produce." This process is a typical characteristic of the best of our knowledge "far field", this field from amplitude exceeds one wavelength device, if the amplitude is less than one wavelength, resulting in the main is the magnetic field. John said: "The reaction of the body of the electric field is very strong, which is why you can use a microwave to cook chicken, but the magnetic field does not have an impact on the human body based on the body's absorption of energy, it is the reaction of the magnetic field is almost zero. "As a result, this device can not be brought to mankind any significant health risk.
   
Convert wireless energy transmission device works

    "Resonance" principle of physics - two objects of the same frequency of vibration energy efficient transmission.
    1.An electricity transmission line the incoming antenna made of copper.
    2.A wavelength of vibration of 10 MHz, the antenna generating electromagnetic waves.
    3.Antenna energy propagation to 2 meters (6.5 feet) away.
    4. Laptop computers receiving the same vibration frequency of 10 MHz to the current, the energy charged into the apparatus.
   No converts the energy of the laptop will not be re-absorbed by the antenna. Can not produce the 10 MHz resonance and other objects will not produce interference it.
Design
    Encounter in our daily life, often inadequate power of mobile phones, computers and other much-needed punch power situation, but we can not always carry the charger, cause the phone to charge a lot of trouble. Now with wireless charging technology can reduce such trouble in a great extent. In particular can greatly facilitate the electronic products such as Iphone, Ipad can not remove the battery charging.
    I program for white-collar workers, office supplies, home office supplies. The concept is that people most frequently in contact with the table to solve this problem, anytime, anywhere with rechargeable electronics.
    Unchanged to maintain the appearance of a work desk, and add in its surface layer of wireless charging surface, and on the design of such a terminal good. And in behind electronic products add a wireless charging receiver devices, enabling wireless charging. When you work office when the phone on the table at the same time you can think to charge the phone, always remain fully charged, so as to get rid of the troubles of the charger.
    This design is for the entire desktop charging your digital equipment is placed in that position, you can be through wireless charging technology to charge your device. Table with wooden tables prototype, mainly processed the desktop. 800mm × 1000mm wireless charging transmitter tiled on the desktop, covered the entire desktop, each transmitter connected together to form a whole. Behind the table to open a small hole through the plug busy, close to the outline of the table down. In the table surface covered with a layer of plastic film, to fully cover the table surface, and the covering in which the transmitter or the like, to form a full desktop.
    Electric car owners think the most tedious thing might be for each and every vehicle charging need to connect with a wire rope sockets vehicle. Nobody likes to do such a repeat boring things every night.
    Recently, Delphi, Infiniti, Nissan, Qualcomm, Rolls-Royce and Wireless Power Corporation (WiTricity) are studying an electric vehicle wireless charging technology that does not require additional connected devices such as wire, the charging device placed in the parking lot parking space, the driver simply parked the vehicle can be left in the appropriate location.
    At present, there are a charging method using electromagnetic induction technology can achieve the purpose of wireless charging. Installed on the road or parking lot at the base station with a variable current to the electromagnetic coil as the transmitter in the time of charging, the vehicle bottom having an electromagnetic coil as a receiver, when the vehicle traveling to the appropriate location, the transmitter and the receiver via a wireless induction resonance occurs resulting in the current, the current through the conversion into the car battery, so the battery is full.
    Electromagnetic induction technology can realize the idea of wireless charging, but the technology is not perfect. Because the electromagnetic launchers installed on the road surface will produce clutter may be heating the surrounding metal objects (by ohmic heating mode). This technology is currently questioned by the public.
    This technology uses non-contact power conversion method, relying on magnetic dynamic coupling, or MDC ways (two 4-6 inches between the permanent magnet away from the induced magnetic field). The system transmitter end between the bottom of the road and the car with a magnet in the car at the bottom of the receiving end with a magnet. When a small electric motor when the rotation of the magnet below the top of the magnet influenced by the electromagnetic induction to rotate therewith, thereby generating an induced electromotive force, i.e. energy.
    The researchers explained: "This way to achieve the same effect with the mechanical coupling, but it does not require direct contact, so that played a energy-saving effect."
    From a manufacturing standpoint, the two magnets are integrated into the motor and generator, the formation of a compact and reliable power conversion system. In addition, it is possible to use relatively inexpensive ferrite magnet instead of the higher cost of the magnet of the rare earth element materials.
    The test results show that the wireless charging method, charging efficiency compared to cable charging 90% higher, and does not require precise alignment between the equipment and vehicles, because the effectiveness of the magnetic field range.
    Now facing a technical issue is whether in the case of congestion and bad weather can do accurate charge. Some experts questioned the usefulness of this technology. Expert John M. Miller, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, said: "This technology is nothing more than electrical energy into mechanical energy from mechanical energy into electrical energy, and energy every step of the transformation will be accompanied by a loss of energy."
    In this regard, the researchers say will be the magnet design more lightweight and unique design to achieve a more efficient energy transfer.
   

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